Zagarin D.A., PhD (Eng), associate professor
Borshch V.V., D.Sc. (Eng), associate professor
Deputy Head for Scientific and Educational Work1
Senior Expert of Council Expert1
1NAMI’s Testing Centre, Moscow Region 141830, Dmitrov district, pos. Avtopoligon, Russian Federation
Zagarin D.A., Borshch V.V., Lyyurov M.V. [Technical regulation improvement of the bus structure safety]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 6–13. (In Russian)
Introduction. The safety level of buses design, which transport a large number of passengers should constantly improve and include the safety of buses seat belts, seats, head restraints, bodywork, etc.
The purpose of the study was to assess the bus passengers safety effectiveness based on the using various seat belts types depending on the distance between the bus seats backs.
Methodology and research methods. Experimental studies were carried out by means of field test method in accordance with the UN Rules for certified equipment and instruments.
Scientific novelty and results. The results of the study of various types seat belts effectiveness with a distance between the seats of 680, 730 and 780 mm have been obtained.
Practical significance. Based on the analysis of the experimental results, recommendations regarding requirements for the design of buses and methods for testing them when making changes and additions to TR TS 018/2011 were proposed.
1. [Indicators of road safety. Official resource of the State traffic inspectorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia]. Available at: http://stat.gibdd.ru (accessed 12 March 2019). (In Russian)
2. Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to safety-belt anchorages, ISOFIX anchorages systems and ISOFIX top tether anchorages: UN Regulation No. 14.
3. Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the seats, their anchorages and any head restraint: UN Regulation No. 17.
4. Uniform provisions concerning the approval of seats of large passenger vehicles and of these vehicles with regard to the strength of the seats and their anchorages: UN Regulation No. 80.
5. Uniform provisions concerning the approval of category M2 or M3 vehicles with regard to their general construction: UN Regulation No. 107.
6. Uniform provisions concerning the type approval of: I. Safety-belts and restraint systems for occupants of power-driven vehicles; II. Vehicles equipped with safetybelts: UN Regulation No. 16.
7. Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the protection of the occupants in the event of a frontal collision: UN Regulation No. 94.
8. [On the safety of wheeled vehicles (as amended on February 16, 2018): Technical regulation of the Customs Union TR CU 018/2011: approved. by the decision of the Commission of the Customs Union of March 9, 2011 No. 877]. (In Russian)
Полный текст: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971564
Padalkin B.V., PhD (Eng)1
Kotiev G.O., D.Sc. (Eng), professor2
Stadukhin A.A., PhD (Eng)1
Kositsyn B.B., PhD (Eng)2
1Department “Multipurpose tracked vehicles and mobile robots”3
2Department “Wheeled vehicles”3
3Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005, Russian Federation
Padalkin B.V., Kotiev G.O., Stadukhin A.A., Kositsyn B.B. [Comparative analysis of the electromechanical transmissions schemes of tracked vehicles with two traction electric motors. Part 2]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 14–23. (In Russian)
Introduction. Currently, an intensive development is being carried out to create tracked vehicles equipped with traction motors, the use of which practically eliminates the mechanical drive (friction clutches or brakes) controls, organizing stepless rectilinear motion and rotation together with the partial kinetic recuperation of braking energy.
The purpose of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the electromechanical transmissions schemes of tracked vehicles with two traction electric motors.
Methodology and research methods. To provide the possibility of a electromechanical transmissions comparative analysis the article presented kinematic and power link equations which made it possible to describe in general terms the transmission-rotation mechanisms of tracked vehicles equipped with two traction motors. The following variants of the circuit design of the transmission were compared: on-board drive of the drive wheels, separate drive for rectilinear movement and rotation, joint drive for rectilinear movement and rotation. The criterion for evaluating electromechanical transmissions was the value of the installed capacity of electric motors (the product of the maximum moment and the maximum rotational speed of the rotor shaft), referred to the power costs necessary to ensure rectilinear motion. To carry out the calculations, a number of operational operating modes of tracked vehicles were formed.
Scientific novelty and results. The methods presented in this work allowed to conduct a comparative assessment of the applied various circuit decisions effectiveness of the transmission-rotation mechanisms in the developed tracked vehicles at the design stage. Their distinctive feature was the application of a single approach to the obtained solutions analysis. The result of the study was a scientifically based choice of rational schemes of transmission-rotation mechanisms for high-speed tracked vehicles with two traction electric motors.
Practical significance. In the framework of the article, a number of rational circuit solutions for the transmission-rotation mechanisms of tracked vehicles have been obtained, the use of which will reduce the total installed capacity of the traction electric drive and, accordingly, reduce the weight and size parameters of the electric motors used.
traction electric motor
1. Zabavnikov N.A. [Fundamentals of the theory of transport tracked vehicles]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1967. 356 p. (In Russian)
2. Krasnen’kov V.I., Vashets A.D. [Design of planetary mechanisms of transport vehicles]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1986. 272 p. (In Russian)
3. Kotiev G.O., Miroshnichenko A.V., Stadukhin A.A. [Determination of high-speed ranges of multipurpose wheeled and tracked vehicles with electromechanical transmission]. Trudy NAMI, 2017, no. 3 (270), pp. 51–55. (In Russian)
4. Beloutov G.S., Gusev M.N., Korol’kov R.N., Shirshov Yu.I. [Tracked vehicle transmission]. Patent RF, no. 2012147096, 2012. (In Russian)
5. Kositsyn B.B., Kotiev G.O., Miroshnichenko A.V., Padalkin B.V., Stadukhin A.A. [Characterization of transmissions of wheeled and tracked vehicles with individual drive wheels]. Trudy NAMI, 2019, no. 3 (278), pp. 22–35 (In Russian)
6. Kositsyn B.B., Kotiev G.O., Miroshnichenko A.V., Padalkin B.V., Stadukhin A.A. [Method of ensuring the mobility of the developed wheeled and tracked vehicles with individual electric drive wheels]. Trudy NGTU im. R.E. Alekseeva, 2019, no. 3 (126), pp. 135–144. (In Russian)
7. Gorelov V.A., Kositsyn B.B., Miroshnichenko A.V., Stadukhin A.A. [Method for determining the characteristics of an individual traction electric drive of a two-link tracked vehicle at the design stage]. Trudy NGTU im. R.E. Alekseeva, 2019, no. 3 (126), pp. 120–134. (In Russian)
Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971565
Chaplygin A.V., postgraduate 1
1Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute” (FSUE “NAMI”), Moscow 125438, Russian Federation
Chaplygin A.V. [Improving observability of vehicle’s navigation parameters by means of Kalman filtering]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 24–34. (In Russian)
Introduction. This article describes the observability problem for navigation parameters of road vehicles, namely the coordinates and the heading angle, which are used by automated driving systems. The measurement quality of navigation parameters can vary substantially depending on vehicle operating conditions ranging from high precision measurements to complete unavailability of navigation data. Low quality of navigation data may render operation of automated driving systems impossible. To solve this problem, this work uses indirect measurements implemented if the form of so-called observers, which are able to identify the vehicle navigation parameters regardless of its operating conditions.
The purpose – of the study is to improve observability of the vehicle navigation parameters.
Methodology and research methods. The observers of the vehicle navigation parameters were implemented using a kinematic model of vehicle’s motion and Kalman filtering. The accuracy of the elaborated observers was estimated by root mean square errors and maximum deviations from the reference data acquired by a high precision navigation system in various driving conditions.
Scientific novelty and results. The article provides a detailed analysis of the observability problem regarding the vehicle navigation parameters. It also proposes a development approach for observers of the vehicle heading angle and coordinates based on the Kalman filter. The parameters calculated by the elaborated observers were verified through a comparison with high precision measurements.
The practical significance of the work is constituted by the elaborated observers, which provide an improved quality of the vehicle navigation parameters.
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8. Mochnac J., Marchevsky S., Kocan P. Bayesian fil¬tering techniques: Kalman and extended Kalman filter ba¬sics // 19th International Conference Radioelektronika. – 2009. – P. 119–122.
9. Wan E.A. The unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear estimation // Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 Adaptive Sys¬tems for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control Symposium. – 2000. – P. 153–158.
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11. Kulikov I.A., Ulchenko I.A., Chaplygin A.V. Using Real World Data in Virtual Development and Testing of a Path Tracking Controller for an Autonomous Vehicle // In-ternational Journal of Innovative Technology and Explor¬ing Engineering. – 2019. – Vol. 8, no. 12. – P. 720–726.
12. Volkov V.L., Zhidkova N.V. [Information processing in system of orientation, based on MEMS]. Trudy NGTU im. R.E. Alekseeva, 2015, no. 3, pp. 279–286. (In Russian)
13. Nikitin I.V. [The problem of navigation of a ground object based on BINS and odometer data. Cand. phys.- math. sci. diss.]. Moscow, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2015, p. 8. (In Russian)
Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971566
Kozlov A.V., D.Sc. (Eng)
head of department1
Kornilov G.S., D.Sc. (Eng)
chief scientific officer1
Grinev V.N., postgraduate
1Department “Energy-saving technologies and alternative fuel”, Center “Power units”, Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute” (FSUE “NAMI”), Moscow 125438, Russian Federation
Kozlov A.V., Kornilov G.S., Grinev V.N. [The influence of fuel supply parameters on the dual-fuel engine performance]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 35–45. (In Russian)
Introduction. Modern research in the area of internal combustion engines are focused on searching and investigating the technologies that will improve fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. Application of dual-fuel engines is considered as a potential solution of these problems. In the dual-fuel engine, natural gas-air mixture is ignited by a small amount of the diesel fuel directly injected into a combustion chamber. Pilot fuel injection parameters can strongly affect combustion process. This paper is devoted to the investigation of the effect of fuel supply parameters on the dual-fuel engine combustion process.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of such parameters as pilot fuel mass, pilot fuel injection pressure, pilot fuel injection timing and excess air ratio on combustion process.
Methodology and research methods. Based on the data obtained during the bench tests conducted with the use of the measurement equipment, the dependences of engine characteristics from the fuel supply parameters under review and the heat release rate curves were obtained. Optimal value for every investigated parameter was chosen. The combustion process indicators were calculated for each operating mode.
Scientific novelty and results. The result of the investigation is consist in obtaining new data on combustion process parameters adjusting based on the heat release rate curves for the operating modes under review. Based on the obtained results, coefficient m for heat release rate was calculated for each operating point, according to Vibe’s equation.
Practical significance. The results of the conducted investigation can be applied when designing modern heavy-duty dual-fuel engines.
pilot fuel mass
pilot fuel injection pressure
start of injection
excess air ratio
1. Luksho V.A. Investigation of the working process and environmental performance of a dual-fuel gas engine // ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. – 2016. – № 11. – P. 12472–12479.
2. Luksho V.A., Terenchenko A.S., Filiposyants T.R., Kornilov G.S., Mironov M.V. [Gasodiesels of NAMI]. Avtomobil’naya promyshlennost’, 2013, no. 10, pp. 18–20. (In Russian)
3. Luksho V.A., Kozlov A.V., Grinev V.N. [Analysis of investigations of diesel pilot fuel injection parameters influence on performance of a dual-fuel engine]. Trudy NAMI, 2018, no. 2 (273), pp. 16–25. (In Russian)
4. Pirouzpanah V., Saray R. Khoshbakhti. A predictive model for the combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads using a quasi-dimensional multi zone model and detailed chemical kinetics mechanism // IJE Transactions B: Applications. – 2006. – № 19. – P. 1–16.
5. Imran S., Emberson D.R., Ihracska B., Wen D.S., Crookes R.J., Korakianitis T. Effect of pilot fuel quantity and type on performance and emissions of natural gas and hydrogen based combustion in a compression ignition engine // Int. J. Hydrogen Energy. – 2014. – V. 39. – Р. 5163–5175.
6. Kyunghyun R. Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel // Energy conversion and Management. – 2013. – V. 76. – P. 506–516.
7. Carlucci A.P., De Risi A., Laforgia D., Naccarato F. Experimental investigation and combustion analysis of a direct injection dual–fuel diesel–natural gas engine // Energy. – 2008. – V. 33. – P. 256–263.
8. Abd-Alla G.H., Soliman H.A., Badr O.A., Abd-Rabbo M.F. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine // Energy Convers Manage. – 2000. – V. 41. – P. 559–572.
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Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971567
Shadrin S.S., D.Sc. (Eng)
1“Beystrek Rus” LLC, Moscow 107076, Russian Federation
Shadrin S.S. [The BaseTracK team autonomous vehicle, a finalist of the “Zimniy gorod” technological competition]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 46–59. (In Russian)
Introduction. The article provides an overview of the “Zimniy gorod” technological competition held in Russia during 2019, which is a competition of unmanned vehicles moving autonomously in winter conditions at night, taking into account urban conditions and the peculiarities of vehicles operation in Russia. One of the five finalists of the competition was the BaseTracK team, which participated in the Gazelle Next EVA electric minibus. The article describes and substantiates the technical solutions used in the preparation for the competition and implemented in an experimental vehicle.
The purpose of the study was to develop an autonomous wheeled vehicle for participation in the “Zimniy gorod” technology competition.
Methodology and research methods. Research was carried out on the basis of vehicle motion theoretical fundamentals, theoretical mechanics, electrical engineering, the theory of mathematical analysis, the theory of experiment, computer modeling methods, the theory of automated control, methods of synthesis of control systems and communication facilities, methods of processing video information in technical vision systems.
Scientific novelty and results. The scientific novelty is the set of selected technical solutions and methods for adjusting the trajectory controllers and speed control of an unmanned vehicle, which ensure safe and efficient movement in difficult urban and winter conditions. The distinctive features of the implemented project include the use of optimal vehicle control schemes depending on the formulation of the transport problem, high-precision mapping of the terrain by aerial photography as well as the refusal to use lidar technologies.
Practical significance. The description of the unique “Zimniy gorod” competition, which has no analogues in the world, the results obtained and the methodology for designing an unmanned vehicle for difficult operating conditions are of practical importance, as well as the consideration and analysis of practical errors.
unmanned electric vehicle
“Zimniy gorod” competition
autopilot in winter conditions
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2. Eskandarian A. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles. – Springer, 2012. – 1628 p.
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6. Shadrin S.S., Ivanov A.M. [Analytical review of the SAE J3016 standard “A Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles”]. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki, 2015, issue 6 (84), pp. 305–308. (In Russian)
7. Shadrin S.S., Ivanov A.M., Karpukhin K.E. [Radi¬cal safety improvement of road traffic by integration of autonomous wheeled transport vehicles into intelligent transport environment]. Vestnik mashinostroeniya, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85–88. (In Russian)
8. Ivanov A.M., Shadrin S.S. [Autonomous wheeled vehicles – technology development challenges]. [Unmanned vehicles: problems and prospects: collection of materials of the 94th International Scientific and Technical Conference of the Association of Automotive Engineers]. Nizhny Novgorod, NSTU im. R.E. Alekseeva, 2016, pp. 39–43. (In Russian)
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11. [Competition task – Zimniy gorod]. Available at: https://upgreat.one/upload/iblock/8fa/Конкурсное%20 задание%20-%20Зимний%20город.pdf (accessed 01 June 2020). (In Russian)
12. [List of teams “Zimniy gorod”]. Available at: https://upgreat.one/upload/iblock/269/Список_команд_ Зимний_город.pdf (accessed 01 June 2020). (In Russian)
13. [Jury protocol on the winners and prize-winners of the “Zimniy gorod” technological competition]. Available at: https://upgreat.one/upload/iblock/aec/jury_win-ter_city_protocol_28012020.pdf (accessed 01 June 2020). (In Russian)
14. [Technical regulations of the technology competition of the National Technology Initiative “Zimniy gorod”]. Available at: https://upgreat.one/upload/ iblock/687/TR_winter_city_10.11.2019.pdf (accessed 01 June 2020). (In Russian)
15. Ivanov A., Shadrin S., Popov N., Gaevskiy V., Kristalniy S. Virtual and physical testing of advanced driver assistance systems with soft targets // 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Telecommunication (EnT), IEEE. – DOI: 10.1109/EnT47717.2019.9030527.
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18. Shadrin S. Affordable and efficient autonomous driving in allweather conditions // FISITA World Automotive Congress 2018. – 2018.
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21. Shadrin S.S. [Methodology for creating traffic control systems for autonomous wheeled vehicles integrated into an intelligent transport environment. Dr. eng. sci. diss.]. Moscow, MADI, 2017. 400 p. (In Russian)
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Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971568
Grechkin A.V., postgraduate
Kotlyarenko V.I., D.Sc. (Eng)
leading expert of the Expert Council2
1 622 Quality Control Agency of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, Lytkarino 140080, Moscow region, Russian Federation
2 Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute” (FSUE “NAMI”), Moscow 125438, Russian Federation
Grechkin A.V., Kotlyarenko V.I. [Determining solid particles emissions caused by wear of tires and road surfaces while driving wheeled vehicles]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 60–65. (In Russian)
Introduction. The rapid development of road transport in recent years has led to significant environmental pollution, including solid particles caused by tire and road wear.
The purpose of the study was to review and analyze the current state of research on particulate matter emissions caused by tire and roadway wear when vehicles are moving.
Methodology and research methods. In this work, basing on domestic and foreign materials, the method of systematic analysis of solid particles emissions resulting from the interaction of tires and roadways was applied.
Scientific novelty and results. The article analyzed some modern domestic and foreign studies on emissions of solid particles caused by tire and roadway wear when vehicles were moving.
Practical significance. The main research directions of solid particles emissions resulting from tire and roadway wear have been determined.
particulate matter emissions caused by tire and roadway wear
1. [Ambient air quality and health]. World health organization, 2018. Available at: https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health (accessed 15 January 2020). (In Russian)
2. Нealth impacts of air pollution. ЕЕА, 2019. URL: https:// www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/health-impacts-of-air-pollution/health-impacts-of-air-pollution (дата обращения: 25.01.2020).
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4. Azarov V.K. [Development of a comprehensive research methodology and assessment of environmental safety and energy efficiency of vehicles. Cand. eng. sci. diss.]. Moscow, FSUE “NAMI”, 2014, p. 136. (In Russian)
5. Kutenev V.F., Kisulenko B.V., Shyute Yu.V. [Environmental safety of vehicles with internal combustion engines]. Moscow, GUP PPP “Tipografiya “Nauka” RAN” Publ., 2009, p. 4. (In Russian)
6. Balabin I.V., Putin V.A., Chabunin I.S. [Vehicle and tractor wheels and tires]. Moscow, MGTU “MAMI” Publ., 2019, pp. 383–451. (In Russian)
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8. Chizhova V.S. [Improving the environmental safety of the motor transport complex by reducing air pollution by dispersed particles less than 10 µ in size. Cand. eng. sci. diss.]. Moscow, MADI, 2016, p. 21. (In Russian)
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10. Goncharov M. [The whole range of modern technologies should be available to road workers]. Moscow, RBK Publ., 2020, no. 1-2, p. 132. (In Russian)
11. Nevmerzhitskiy N.V. [Methods for assessing and predicting extreme air pollution on highways with fine suspended particles PM10 and PM2.5. Cand. eng. sci. diss.]. St. Petersburg, FGBOU VO “Sankt-Peterburgskiy universitet Gosudarstvennoy protivopozharnoy sluzhby MChS Rossii”, 2016. 154 p. (In Russian)
12. Chizhova V.S. [Improving the environmental safety of the motor transport complex by reducing air pollution by dispersed particles less than 10 µ in size. Cand. eng. sci. diss. abstr.]. Moscow, MADI, 2016, p. 12. (In Russian)
Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971569
chief specialist of the Software Center1
1 Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute” (FSUE “NAMI”), Moscow 125438, Russian Federation
Gololobov Yu.A. [Application of physical patterns when elaborating a control system algorithm for an internal combustion engine]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 66–72. (In Russian)
Introduction. An electrically driven throttle unit is used in modern internal combustion engines (ICE) with quantitative control. The throttle unit makes it possible not only regulate the amount of incoming air, but also measure the parameters of the air passed through the throttle unit.
The purpose of the study was to develop an algorithm for the ICE control system.
Methodology and research methods. The ICE control systems algorithms were based on the application of physical patterns.
Scientific novelty and results. To work out the needed algorithm high-precision models were used, in particular, a model that took into account the leakage of the simulated throttle unit caused by the gaps necessary for the normal throttle unit operation. To determine the amount of air passed through the throttle unit with the help of the ICE control system, it was proposed to use the model considering the area of the slot formed due to the inequality of the linear size of the throttle valve small axis and the inner diameter of the throttle channel. In case the area of the slot in the model is not considered it can lead to a significant error, especially when the absolute angle of the throttle position is less than 30 degrees. The existing model of the throttle unit passage area was taken into account and a more accurate model of the throttle unit passage slot area was proposed. The results of calculating the relative error and the amount of the passed through the throttle unit air for the models under consideration were presented.
Practical significance. The developed recommendations can be used in the elaboration of software algorithms for the electronic control unit of the internal combustion engine control system.
internal combustion engine
engine control system
throttle valve position
1. Gololobov Yu.A. [Partial model of filling the engine cylinder with residual gas recirculation]. Trudy NAMI, 2018, no. 4 (275), pp. 67–71. (In Russian)
2. Vinogradov B.S. [Applied Gas Dynamics]. Moscow, RUDN University Publ., 1965. 348 p. (In Russian)
3. Moskwa J.J. Automotive engine modeling for real time control: Phd. thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts, MA, 1988.
4. Isermann R. Engine Modeling and Control: Modeling and Electronic Management of Internal Combustion Engines. – Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2014. – 646 р.
5. Smolyanskiy M.L. [Indefinite integral tables]. Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publ., 1963. 111 p. (In Russian)
Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971570
eading expert of the Expert Council1
1 Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute” (FSUE “NAMI”), Moscow 125438, Russian Federation
Kotlyarenko V.I. [Soul work]. Trudy NAMI, 2020, no. 3 (282), pp. 73–84. (In Russian)
Full text: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=43971571